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Showing posts with label Mortality rate. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mortality rate. Show all posts

12 March, 2016

Changing oral vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine might increase mortality

None - This image is in the public domain and ...None - This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. As a matter of courtesy we request that the content provider be credited and notified in any public or private usage of this image. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
We, the undersigned, write as physicians and scientists committed to optimising the beneficial effects of vaccines to reduce infant mortality worldwide. In settings with high childhood mortality, live vaccines such as oral polio vaccine (OPV), BCG vaccine, and measles vaccine might have heterologous (non-specific) effects that reduce mortality from diseases other than poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and measles, respectively, whereas inactivated vaccines might increase all-cause mortality.1 The importance of these effects is controversial.
See full Article here.

18 June, 2013

Study Reports a 12.3% Rate of Bladder Cancer Mortality at 10 Years for Patients With High-Risk Bladder Cancer

Age-standardised death rates from Malignant ne...
Age-standardised death rates from Malignant neoplasms by country (per 100,000 inhabitants). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Cancer 2013 Jun 04;[EPub Ahead of Print], K Chamie, MS Litwin, JC Bassett, TJ Daskivich, J Lai, JM Hanley, BR Konety, CS Saigal


TAKE-HOME MESSAGE

An examination of outcome for over 7000 patients with high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer reports a 12.3% rate of bladder cancer mortality at 10 years.


ABSTRACT
Background: Patients with bladder cancer are apt to develop multiple recurrences that require intervention. The recurrence, progression, and bladder cancer-related mortality rates were examined in a cohort of individuals with high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Methods: Using linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, subjects were identified who had a diagnosis of high-grade, non-muscle-invasive disease in 1992 to 2002 and who were followed until 2007. Multivariate competing-risks regression analyses were then used to examine recurrence, progression, and bladder cancer-related mortality rates.
Results: Of 7410 subjects, 2897 (39.1%) experienced a recurrence without progression, 2449 (33.0%) experienced disease progression, of whom 981 succumbed to bladder cancer. Using competing-risks regression analysis, the 10-year recurrence, progression, and bladder cancer-related mortality rates were found to be 74.3%, 33.3%, and 12.3%, respectively. Stage T1 was the only variable associated with a higher rate of recurrence. Women, black race, undifferentiated grade, and stage Tis and T1 were associated with a higher risk of progression and mortality. Advanced age (≥ 70) was associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer-related mortality.
Conclusions: Nearly three-fourths of patients diagnosed with high-risk bladder cancer will recur, progress, or die within 10 years of their diagnosis. Even though most patients do not die of bladder cancer, the vast majority endures the morbidity of recurrence and progression of their cancer. Increasing efforts should be made to offer patients intravesical therapy with the goal of minimizing the incidence of recurrences. Furthermore, the high recurrence rate seen during the first 2 years of diagnosis warrants an intense surveillance schedule.

Cancer
Recurrence of High-Risk Bladder Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis
Cancer 2013 Jun 04;[EPub Ahead of Print], K Chamie, MS Litwin, JC Bassett, TJ Daskivich, J Lai, JM Hanley, BR Konety, CS Saigal
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18 September, 2011

Pediatric deaths due to varicella are becoming a thing of the past

Varicella simplex (Chickenpox) on a child Skull.                       Image via Wikipedia Source: MD Consult


ST LOUIS (MD Consult) - With implementation of the varicella vaccination program in the United States, deaths due to the disease among children and adolescents have virtually ceased, finds a study reported in the August 2011 issue of Pediatrics.

Using data from the Mortality Multiple Cause-of-Death records of the US National Center for Health Statistics, investigators analyzed temporal patterns of deaths among individuals of all ages for which varicella was listed as an underlying or contributing cause between 1990 and 2007. The vaccination program was introduced in 1995.

Over the first 12 years of the program, the annual average mortality rate for varicella listed as the underlying cause fell by 88%, from 0.41 per million population in 1990-1994 to 0.05 per million population in 2005-2007.

The same pattern was evident across all age-groups. The reduction was 97%, 90%, and 67% among children and adolescents younger than 20 years, among adults aged 20 to 49 years, and among adults aged 50 years or older, respectively.

In the last 6 years analyzed (2002-2007), there were 3 deaths each among children aged 1 to 4 years and aged 5 to 9 years; in sharp contrast, there were an average of 13 and 16 deaths annually, respectively, before the vaccine was introduced.

All of the deaths among children and adolescents younger than 20 years in 2002-2007 occurred in those who did not have high-risk conditions as strictly defined by the study, although 3 occurred in children or adolescents having conditions that could increase risk.

"The impressive decline in varicella deaths can be directly attributed to successful implementation of the 1-dose vaccination program," the investigators conclude. "With the current 2-dose program, there is potential that these most severe outcomes of a vaccine-preventable disease could be eliminated."

Pediatrics. 2011;128:214-220.


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